Ion charge state distributions (CSDs) are experimentally known for 50 elements but theoretical understanding is unsatisfactory. CSDs of vacuum arc plasmas are calculated under the assumption that the spot plasma experiences an instantaneous transition from equilibrium to non-equilibrium while expanding. Observable charge state distributions are the result of a freezing process at this transition. "Frozen" CSDs have been calculated using Saha equations in the Debye-Hückel approximation of the non-ideal plasma for all metals of the Periodic Table, and for carbon, silicon, and germanium. The results are presented in a "Periodic Table of CSDs". The table contains also the mean ion charge state, the neutral vapor fraction, and the effective plasma temperature and density at the freezing point for each element.

1 aAnders, André uhttps://buildings.lbl.gov/publications/periodic-table-vacuum-arc-charge