The growing investment by governments and electric utilities in energy efficiency programs highlights the need for simple tools to help assess and explain the size of the potential resource. One technique that is commonly used in that effort is to characterize electricity savings in terms of avoided power plants, because it is easier for people to visualize a power plant than it is to understand an abstraction like billions of kilowatt hours. Unfortunately, there is no standardization around the characteristics of such power plants. In this article we define parameters for a standard avoided power plant that have physical meaning and intuitive plausibility, for use in back-of-the-envelope calculations. For the prototypical plant this article settles on a 500-megawatt existing coal plant operating at a 70% capacity factor with 7% T&D losses. Displacing such a plant for one year would save 3 billion kWh/year at the meter and reduce emissions by 3 million metric tons of CO_{2} per year.The proposed name for this metric is the Rosenfeld, in keeping with the tradition among scientists of naming units in honor of the person most responsible for the discovery and widespread adoption of the underlying scientific principle in question – Dr. Arthur H. Rosenfeld.

The behavior of room temperature in a passive solar building without backup heat is of great interest to the building designer. This Daper presents programs for card-reading programmable hand-calculators which compute room temperature over the course of a design day. Instructions for calculating the input parameters, and for running the programs are given, and a brief review of the theory is provided. The program can presently be used only for single-zone unmanaged, direct-gain buildings.

1 aGoldstein, David, B1 aLokmanhekim, Metin1 aClear, Robert, D. uhttps://buildings.lbl.gov/publications/design-calculations-passive-solar01853nas a2200121 4500008004100000050001300041245006000054210006000114300001200174520144000186100002401626856008101650 1979 eng d aLBL-858300aModeling Passive Solar Buildings with Hand Calculations0 aModeling Passive Solar Buildings with Hand Calculations a164-1693 aPassive solar design can be encouraged by a better theoretical understanding of the performance of passive solar buildings and the ability to predict the thermal response of various designs. But existing public-domain computer programs do not yet handle solar gains precisely and are inaccurate in modeling buildings with large solar gains. Even when they are revised to properly describe solar effects, they may still fail to provide insight into the thermally important features of the building.

To address these problems, we derive an analytic model of passive solar building performance. We use heat balances on the surfaces of materials that absorb sunlight (e.g., the inside surface of a mass wall or concrete floor), along with solutions to the diffusion equation, to derive response functions for surface temperature as a function of solar flux and ambient temperature. These expressions are combined to form building response functions. These explicit building response functions allow one to write relatively simple, analytic expressions for room temperature as a function of time over the course of a design day in terms of ambient temperature, sunlight, and heater output (if any).

Parallels between our analytic model and computer codes can be exploited to provide a better intuitive understanding of the programs and to assist in the incorporation of accurate passive solar simulation into these codes.

1 aGoldstein, David, B uhttps://buildings.lbl.gov/publications/modeling-passive-solar-buildings-hand01637nas a2200121 4500008004100000050001300041245011100054210006900165520115900234100002401393700002301417856007501440 1979 eng d aLBL-978700aA Simple Method for Computing the Dynamic Response of Passive Solar Buildings to Design Weather Conditions0 aSimple Method for Computing the Dynamic Response of Passive Sola3 aIn contrast to the lengthy computations required to simulate hour-by-hour building performance using response-factor or thermal network models, design-day performance can be analyzed simply by using a method developed based on Fourier transforms. This paper describes how Fourier response functions are derived from the buildings thermal properties and shows how approximations can be made which allow the results to be expressed as algebraic formulas which can be computed rapidly using a hand-calculator.

A program written for a hand-calculator which can perform this analysis requires as inputs building design parameters such as UA products (conductances), specific heats of materials, and weather parameters. Since similar materials (e.g. frame walls and ceilings) can be lumped together, data for only a few different construction types are needed. Weather parameters are: daily solar gains for sunny and cloudy design days, length of cloudy design weather cycle, average ambient temperature of the design day and typical diurnal temperature fluctuation. Output from the program is hourly room temperatures for each of the design days.

1 aGoldstein, David, B1 aLokmanhekim, Metin uhttps://buildings.lbl.gov/publications/simple-method-computing-dynamic01527nas a2200109 4500008004100000050001300041245006500054210006500119520112900184100002401313856008001337 1978 eng d aLBL-781100aSome Analytical Models of Passive Solar Building Performance0 aSome Analytical Models of Passive Solar Building Performance3 aThis paper describes an application of the fundamental methods of physics to solve a problem of environmental and economic interest: the description of the thermal performance of passive solar buildings. Such a description is of great practical interest to building designers; however, this paper is not intended to be of use to architects and engineers in its present form. Its intention is to provide a theoretical basis for understanding passive solar buildings; further effort is needed to develop rules of solar engineering.

The reader of this paper is assumed to have a background in physics and its application to buildings. Since building physicists have not yet developed analytic models of general applicability, this paper must derive its equations from first principles. This has resulted in a lengthy exposition. Because of the length, I have attempted to summarize the results of Section 2 early in the section. This summary is meant only as a guide to the reader, and so it presents many of its statements without proof or full explanation. More complete derivations are found later in the paper.

1 aGoldstein, David, B uhttps://buildings.lbl.gov/publications/some-analytical-models-passive-solar