TY - DATA
T1 - Improving Air Leakage Prediction of Buildings using the Fan Pressurization Method with the Weighted Line of Organic Correlation
Y1 - 2020/
A1 - Benedikt Kolsch
A1 - Iain S. Walker
KW - airtightness
KW - Building envelope
KW - fan pressurization
KW - Ordinary Least Square Fitting
KW - Power Law
KW - Weighted Line of Organic Correlation
AB - In many countries, the fan pressurization method is the most frequently chosen approach formeasuring the air leakage of houses. The measurements are usually performed at pressures thatfar exceed pressures to which buildings are exposed to under normal conditions. A fit of thesetests to the power-law formulation allows an extrapolation to data points outside the measuredpressure range. With the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) fitting method, the pressure exponent andflow coefficient can be determined. However, the measurement results are highly sensitive touncertainties induced by external factors like changing wind conditions during the tests, which isneglected by OLS. This may lead to errors in the prediction of flows at lower pressures. TheWeighted Line of Organic Correlation (WLOC) is an alternative approach and takesmeasurement uncertainty into account. In this paper, a statistical analysis of an extensive dataset of pressurization measurements has been performed. Both regression techniques have beencompared for almost 7500 fan pressurization measurements of six houses in 109 different houseleak configurations. The variability in predicting pressure exponent and flow coefficient for bothWLOC and OLS regression was analyzed using probability density functions. It was found thatthe Weighted Line of Organic Correlation significantly decreases the uncertainty in predictingpressure exponent, flow coefficient, and other low-pressure air leakage metrics compared to theOrdinary Least Square fitting. The authors highly recommend the implementation of WLOC incurrent measurement standards and test equipment.
DO - doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2020.107157
ER -
TY - RPRT
T1 - Air Tightness of US Homes: Model Development
Y1 - 2006/
A1 - Max H. Sherman
KW - air leakage
KW - air tightness
KW - fan pressurization
KW - leakage area
AB - Air tightness is an important property of building envelopes. It is a key factor in determining infiltration and related wall-performance properties such as indoor air quality, maintainability and moisture balance. Air leakage in U.S. houses consumes roughly 1/3 of the HVAC energy but provides most of the ventilation used to control IAQ. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been gathering residential air leakage data from many sources and now has a database of more than 100,000 raw measurements. This paper uses that database to develop a model for estimating air leakage as a function of climate, building age, floor area, building height, floor type, energy-efficiency and low-income designations. The model developed can be used to estimate the leakage distribution of populations of houses.
PB - Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
U1 - 2.3

U2 - LBNL-59202
ER -
TY - JOUR
T1 - Temperature- and wind-induced air flow patterns in a staircase. Computer modelling and experimental verification
JF - Energy and Buildings
Y1 - 1985/
SP - 105
EP - 122
A1 - Helmut E. Feustel
A1 - C.H. Zuercher
A1 - Richard C. Diamond
A1 - J. Bruce Dickinson
A1 - David T. Grimsrud
A1 - Ronnie D. Lipschutz
KW - air-infiltration ‘multi-cell’ calculation model
KW - fan pressurization
KW - leakage area
KW - thermal buoyancy and wind effect
KW - tracer gas measurements
KW - wind pressure data and air infiltration calculation
AB - The typical infiltration load for a residential building has been found to range from one-third to one-half of the total space conditioning load. However, most infiltration measurements have been made on single-family houses. Information about the role of infiltration in the energy consumption of large buildings is limited. Furthermore, the prediction of infiltration rates in high-rise buildings is a complex problem. The forces that drive this flow result from the superposition of wind pressure on the faces of the building and the stack effect across the height of the building. Infiltration models have shown the latter effect to be significant in single-family residences, particular in colder climates and, consequently, the stack effect is even greater in high-rise buildings. For this work, we performed tracer gas and fan pressurization measurements on a 30 m tall University of California dormitory in order to determine the importance of both wind and stack effect upon infiltration. Measured pressure and tracer gas distributions were compared with those from a predictive infiltration computer model for high-rise buildings. To study the influence of the air flow pattern around the building, this model uses various wind velocity profiles characteristic of urban areas and different sets of surface pressure coefficients derived from wind tunnel experiments.
VL - 8
IS - 2
DO - 10.1016/0378-7788(85)90020-9
ER -