From 1980 to 2002, China experienced a 5% average annual reduction in energyconsumption per unit of gross domestic product (GDP). With a dramatic reversal of thishistoric relationship, energy intensity increased 5% per year during 2002-2005. China's 11th Five Year Plan (FYP) set a target of reducing energy intensity by 20% by 2010. This paperassesses selected policies and programs that China has instituted to fulfill the national goal,finding that China made substantial progress and many of the energy-efficiency programsappear to be on track to meet – or in some cases exceed – their energy-saving targets. Most ofthe Ten Key Projects, the Top-1000 Program, and the Small Plant Closure Program will meetor surpass the 11th FYP savings goals. China's appliance standards and labeling program hasbecome very robust. China has greatly enhanced its enforcement of new building energystandards but energy-efficiency programs for buildings retrofits, as well as the goal ofadjusting China's economic structure, are failing. It is important to maintain and strengthenthe existing energy-saving policies and programs that are successful while revising programsor adding new policy mechanisms to improve the programs that are not on track to achievethe stated goals.