Characterization of Sol-Gel Deposited Niobium Pentoxide Films for Electrochromic Devices

Publication Type

Journal Article

LBNL Report Number

LBL-38525

Abstract

Niobium pentoxide films, fabricated by the sol-gel process, were spin coated onto conductive indium tin oxide (ITO)/glass, and microscope slides. These films were cycled in a 1M LiClO4 propylene carbonate (PC) solution, and exhibited electrochromic behavior upon the electrochemical insertion (reduction) and extraction (oxidation) of lithium. In-situ optical transmittance measurements were investigated in the ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared wavelength regions (250-2100 nm). Niobium pentoxide films showed reversible optical switching from 320 to 870 nm, but were found electrochromically inactive in the infrared region. Surface analysis using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicated little difference in the chemistry of Nb2O5 films as deposited and lithiated LixNb2O5 films, as XPS binding energies of Nb and O showed no appreciable shifts. These films were found to be amorphous by X-ray diffraction. Optical transmittance measurements combined with cyclic voltamograms and XPS spectra, revealed that the electrochromic behavior of these films occurs due to the insertion of Li+ cations into niobium pentoxide films. The bronze coloration of the niobium pentoxide films could make them useful as an electrochromic counter electrodesfor electrochromic devices.

Journal

Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells

Volume

36

Year of Publication

1994

Pagination

433-443

Call Number

LBL-38525