LBNL Report Number
Traditional computational models predict daylight illuminance in a space by dividing window surfaces into discrete areas and then calculating the apparent luminance of each window element by multiplying the luminance of the natural light source in a given viewing direction by the window transmittance in that direction. This approach works well for conventional glazing materials but is incapable of modeling commonly used, but complex, window systems such, as those with specular reflective venetian blinds. We describe a new approach that combines measured luminance distributions for complex window systems with a flux transfer calculation within the space. This method resembles the calculation of illuminance from electric light fixtures where the candlepower distribution of the fixtures is measured and used as an input to the calculation. Based on the variable luminance characteristics of the window system, the SUPERLITE program calculates illuminance at the workplane over the entire space. The measurement techniques and mathematical implementation in the SUPERLITE program are described. This approach allows a wide range of complex window and shading systems to be evaluated without continuous changes in the computational program. A special apparatus for measuring the bidirectional transmittance of window systems has been built in conjunction with this approach. Sample results from the program are compared to measurements made in scale models in a sky simulator.