Energy Reporting: Device Demonstration, Communication Protocols, and Codes and Standards

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Energy reporting is the principle that all energy-using devices in buildings should be able to track their own energy use and report this to the local network. Energy reporting can provide building owners with easy access to highly granular energy use data. This report makes the case that energy reporting should become a free basic feature of all devices, and reports on a project intended to move us towards that goal.
The project collected a set of demonstration devices with energy reporting features, including products that were modified by the project team or the manufacturer, or are already available for sale. To show these devices operating live at meetings and conferences, the team created a management system that queries the energy reporting devices for their data, stores the data, and displays it in compelling visualizations.
The devices covered a wide range, including heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (thermostat and air purifier); lighting (individual bulb, task light, and auto-dimming overhead light); a vehicle charger; a water heater; electronics (notebook personal computer and universal serial bus charger); and three external meters (one integral with a dimming light switch). The demonstration uses a variety of communication protocols.
The report reviews existing communication protocols that support energy reporting and describes how to use them with a proposed reference data model for energy reporting. It also assesses ways that energy codes and standards processes can be leveraged to drive energy reporting technology into the market. Energy reporting could ultimately save California on the order of 2.5 terawatt-hours per year and about $0.8 billion per year. Energy reporting is a highly practical technology with minimal (sometimes no) cost to consumers and manufacturers.
This report discusses creation of the energy reporting devices themselves, analysis and recommendations for data models and protocols for energy reporting, and energy codes and standards implications of energy reporting technology. While energy reporting does not directly save energy, it provides information for better decision-making to save energy in changing equipment operation, maintenance, and replacement.

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