LBNL Report Number
Explicit algebraic equations for calculation of wind and stack driven ventilation were developed by parametrically matching exact solutions to the flow equations for building envelopes. These separate wind and stack effect flow calculation procedures were incorporated in a simple natural ventilation model, AIM- 2, with empirical functions for superposition of wind and stack effect and for estimating wind shelter. The major improvements over previous simplified ventilation calculations are: a power law pressure-flow relationship is used to develop the flow equations form first principles, the furnace or fireplace flue is included as a separate leakage site and the model differentiates between houses with basements (or slab-on- grade) and crawlspaces. Over 3400 hours of measured ventilation rates from the test houses at the Alberta Home Heating Research Facility were used to validate the predictions of ventilation rates and to compare the AIM-2 predictions to those of other ventilation models. The AIM-2 model had bias and scatter errors of less than 15% for wind-dominated ventilation, and less than 7% for buoyancy ("stack-effect") dominated cases.