Energy-related occupant behaviour in buildings has demonstrated considerable energy-saving potential. However, the current modelling method of occupant behaviour does not give sufficient considerations on the implementation difficulty of behaviour and provide a holistic map from survey data to various behaviour models.This article proposes a holistic survey-and-simulation-based framework for estimating the energy-saving potential of occupant behaviour improvement. In the framework, seven typical categories of occupant behaviour models are identified based on the survey results. According to the implementation difficulty, the models are integrated into four behaviour styles (baseline, wasteful, moderate and austere) to represent different levels of energy-saving consciousness of occupants. Based on a case study with a nationwide survey in Singapore, there are remarkable energy savings potential if occupant behaviour is improved; the building energy consumption can be reduced by up to 9.5% with the moderate behaviour improvement, and up to 21.0% with the aggressive behaviour improvement. The simulation results accord well with the measured results within a reasonable range of deviation. The framework can be applied to estimate the energy-saving potential of occupant behaviour improvement in a building with affordable cost, and the findings can inform a behaviour improvement program with effective and efficient measures.