Improving Characterization of Miscellaneous Energy Loads in Energy Demand Models

Publication Type

Conference Proceedings



Miscellaneous energy loads (MELs) comprise a significant and growing portion of total building energy consumption. However relatively little is known about the products that make up MELs end uses, and MELs are modeled with less granularity than major end uses in energy demand models such as the U.S. Department of Energy's Scout energy efficiency impact analysis tool or the U.S. Energy Information Administration's National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). This paper identifies differences in the way MELs versus major building end uses are modeled, and then reviews potential sources of MELs baseline technology data that could be used to improve their characterization in energy demand models. Case studies of dry distribution transformers, hot water circulation pumps, and Japanese-style automatic bidets are presented to compare and contrast the level of baseline data available for different end uses. We show that there is potential to use data from energy conservation standards and other sources to significantly improve representation of some MELs in energy demand models, while other emerging MELs require further data collection before they can be modeled precisely.


2018 ACEEE Summer Study

Year of Publication




Research Areas