The global climate change has resulted in not only warmer climate conditions but also more frequent extreme weather events, such as heat waves. However, the impact of heat waves on the indoor environment has been investigated in a limited manner. In this research, the indoor thermal environment is analyzed using a building performance simulation tool for a typical residential building in multiple cities in China, over a time period of 60 years using actual measured weather data, in order to gain a better understanding of the effect of heat wave events. The simulation results were used to analyze the indoor environment during hot summers. A new kind of weather data referred to as the typical hot year was defined and selected based on the simulated indoor environment during heat waves. The typical hot-year weather data can be used to simulate the indoor environment during extreme heat events and for the evaluation of effective technologies and strategies to mitigate against the impact of heat waves on the energy demand of buildings and human health. The limitations of the current study and future work are also discussed.