Nearly 40% of the world's population regularly cooks on inefficient biomass stoves that emit harmful airborne pollutants, such as particulate matter (PM). Secondary air injection can significantly reduce PM mass emissions to mitigate the health and climate impacts associated with biomass cookstoves. However, secondary air injection can also increase the number of ultrafine particles emitted, which may be more harmful to health. This research investigates the effect of secondary air injection on the mass and size distribution of PM emitted during solid biomass combustion. An experimental wood-burning cookstove platform and parametric testing approach are presented to identify and optimize secondary air injection parameters that reduce PM and other harmful pollutants. Size-resolved measurements of PM emissions were collected and analyzed as a function of parametric stove design settings. The results show that PM emissions are highly sensitive to secondary air injection flow rate and velocity. Although increasing turbulent mixing (through increased velocity) can promote more complete combustion, increasing the total flow rate of secondary air may cause localized flame quenching that increases particle emissions. Therefore, biomass cookstoves that implement secondary air injection should be carefully optimized and validated to ensure that PM emission reductions are achieved throughout the particle size range.