The thermal advantages of a roofpond as an element of a residential cooling system are described. The authors conducted heat transfer experiments at two roofpond residences (RPRs) at Trinity University; the authors used data from these experiments to validate RPR simulations. Results of measurements of vertical and horizontal temperature differences within roofponds are discussed. Horizontal heat transfer within one water bag was effective. Thermal resistance at the outer surface of a water bag with a deflated glazing can be significant. Simulation shows that an RPR can provide comfort without supplemental sensible cooling during almost all hours of a typical summer in any U.S climate. Ceiling fans are important in most climates. In the most demanding climates, the residence and the pond insulating panels must have high R-value. A map is included that provides RPR design guidance. The simulations indicate that dehumidification will be required to control mold, mildew, and ceiling condensation in an RPR in most climates; energy and power displacement by an RPR is sensitive to the humidity control required and the efficiency of the dehumidifier used.