LBNL Report Number
Self-sputtering runaway in high power impulse magnetron sputtering is closely related to the appearance of multiply charged ions. This conclusion is based on the properties of potential emission of secondary electrons and energy balance considerations. The effect is especially strong for materials whose sputtering yield is marginally greater than unity. The absolute deposition rate increases ~ Q1/2, whereas the rate normalized to the average power decreases ~ Q-1/2, with Q being the mean ion charge state number.